1993-2010 Generation

  • Gen next 1993-1996 Gen Z 1996-20102001-2010 i-Gen generation
    Leanns blog

    Twin towers attack, A group born in war.

    75.4 million “The next baby boomers” passing the population of the boomers that topped out at 74.9 million. Will this batch of young adults be able to do the amazing things that the boomers did. The changed the way we think and do everything. Will this group too? Most expect that if they would learn to talk to the older generation without offending them, that they could tackle the world in amazing ways.

    These generations grow up only knowing technology at the tips of their fingertips so they really don’t know or understand what it was like before that. They hear stories of in my day they didn’t have this but it has been left their.

    Worry about internet, finances and volunteer for work to become employed. This generation feels they have been given less of a chance and have to work harder to get one. They are multitaskers, that often gets placed in the category  of distracted, rude and lazy. When their really just trying to complete tasks that took other generations 70-80 hrs. to complete in 40 hrs. or less. Most don’t just hang out they entertains them selves by feeding there brain information.  Most contacts are online, in text and basic check ins unless there’s a event, holiday or special occasions.

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    Statue of Liberty and Twin Towers, World Trade Center at Sunset, New York City, New Jersey, New York, designed Minoru Yamasaki

    Most will stand up for the environment, outdoor needs, events and trails. How the respond in social, online, contribution determines where they work more than pay. 85% believe in online education and the rest encourage regular classrooms. Most of this group believes the classroom is out dated schooling and has not changed with the world. There fore failing them to learn real life skills that they need to know.

    They have already changed how we think, learning, marketing, sales and demand.

    I myself think they have the ability too, all they need is the right guidance from the older generations.

    Wikipedia says this is what laws changed for the disabled during these years: Leanns blog

  • 1995 – Justice for All was organized by Justin Dart and others in Washington, D.C., in order to advocate against calls to amend or repeal the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.[1][84]
  • 1995 – The American Association of People with Disabilities was founded in Washington, D.C.[22]
  • 1995 – The American film When Billy Broke His Head… and Other Tales of Wonder, by Billy Golfus, premiered on PBS. It highlighted the disability rights movement.[1][22]
  • 1995 – The U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, ruled in Helen L. v. Snider that continued institutionalization of a disabled Pennsylvania woman, when not medically necessary and where there was the option of home care, was a violation of her rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Disability rights advocates perceived this ruling as a landmark decision regarding the rights of people in nursing homes to personal assistance services.[1]
  • 1995 – Sandra Jensen was denied a heart-lung transplant by the Stanford University School of Medicine in California because she had Down syndrome. After pressure from disability rights activists, Stanford U School of Medicine administrators reversed their decision. In 1996, Jensen became the first person with Down syndrome to receive a heart-lung transplant.[1]
  • 1995 – The Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 (CAA) became law in the U.S., and it required all offices in the legislative branch to make their public services, programs, activities, and places of public accommodation accessible to members of the public who have disabilities, as well as declaring that employees of Congress cannot be discriminated against in personnel actions because of a disability.[85]
  • 1996 – The Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 (MHPA) became law in the U.S. and it required that large group health plans not impose annual or lifetime dollar limits on mental health benefits that are less favorable than any such limits imposed on medical/surgical benefits.[86]
  • 1996 – Paralyzed Veterans of America v. Ellerbe Becket Architects and Engineers, one of the first major Americans with Disabilities Act lawsuits, was focused on the wheelchair accessibility of a stadium project that was still in the design phase, MCI Center in Washington, D.C. Previous to this case, which was filed only five years after the ADA was passed, the DOJ was unable or unwilling to provide clarification on the distribution requirements for accessible wheelchair locations in large assembly spaces. While Section 4.33.3 of ADAAG makes reference to lines of sight, no specific reference is made to seeing over standing patrons. The MCI Center, designed by Ellerbe Becket Architects & Engineers, was designed with too few wheelchair and companion seats, and the ones that were included did not provide sight lines that would enable the wheelchair user to view the playing area while the spectators in front of them were standing. This case and another related case established precedent on seat distribution and sight lines issues for ADA enforcement that continues to present day.
  • 1996 – Not Dead Yet was formed by American disability rights advocates to oppose those who support assisted suicide for people with disabilities. It focuses on opposing rationing health care to people with severe disabilities and opposing the imposition of “do not resuscitate” (DNR) orders for disabled people in hospitals, schools, and nursing homes.[1]
  • 1996 – In Vacco v. Quill and Washington v. Glucksberg, the U.S. Supreme Court validated the state prohibition on physician-assisted suicide, deciding that the issue is within the jurisdiction of the states.[1]
  • 1998 – The Veterans Programs Enhancement Act became law in the U.S., and it required a cost-of-living adjustment in rates of compensation paid to veterans with service-connected disabilities, as well as various improvements in education, housing, and cemetery programs of the Department of Veterans Affairs.[87]
  • 1998 – The first support group for sexual minorities with developmental disabilities was created in 1998 at the New Haven Gay & Lesbian Community Center in Connecticut.[88]
  • 1998 – The Persian Gulf War Veterans Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-277) became law in the U.S., and it required the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to determine, based on National Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Medicine (IOM) reports, whether particular illnesses warrant a presumption of service connection and, if so, to set compensation regulations establishing such a connection for each illness.[1][89]
  • 1998 – In Bragdon v. Abbott, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that under the Americans with Disabilities Act, the definition of disability includes asymptomatic HIV.[1] Also in that case, the U.S. Supreme Court held that reproduction does qualify as a major life activity according to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
  • 1998 – In Pennsylvania Department of Corrections v. Yeskey, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that the Americans with Disabilities Act includes state prisons.[1]
  • 1998 – President Clinton signs into law the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Amendments, which includes Section 508. Section 508 “requires access to the Federal government’s electronic and information technology. The law covers all types of electronic and information technology in the Federal sector and is not limited to assistive technologies used by people with disabilities.”[90]
  • 1999 – In Carolyn C. Cleveland v. Policy Management Systems Corporation, et. al., the U.S. Supreme Court decided that people receiving Social Security disability benefits are protected against discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act if and when they are able to return to work.[1]
  • 1999 – In Olmstead v. L.C., the U.S. Supreme Court decided that individuals with mental disabilities must be offered services in the most integrated setting possible.[1][91]
  • 1999 – The Works Incentives Improvement Act (Ticket to Work) became law in the U.S., allowing those who require health care benefits to work.[1]
  • 1999 – In Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F., the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that taxpayer-supported schools are responsible for the costs of providing continual care for disabled students under a federal law that says all children must receive “free, appropriate public education.” Under the Court’s reading of the IDEA’s relevant provisions, medical treatments such as suctioning, ventilator checks, catheterization, and others which can be administered by non-physician personnel come within the parameters of the special education law’s related services.[92]
  • 1999 – Barden v. The City of Sacramento, filed in March 1999, claimed that the City of Sacramento failed to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act when, while making public street improvements, it did not bring its sidewalks into compliance with the ADA. Certain issues were resolved in Federal Court. One issue, whether sidewalks were covered by the ADA, was appealed to the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, which ruled that sidewalks were a “program” under ADA and must be made accessible to persons with disabilities. The ruling was later appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which refused to hear the case, letting stand the ruling of the 9th Circuit Court.[93]
  • 1999 – Bates v. UPS (begun in 1999) was the first equal opportunity employment class action brought on behalf of deaf and hard of hearing workers throughout the country concerning workplace discrimination. It established legal precedence for deaf and hard of hearing employees and customers to be fully covered under the ADA. Key findings included

  1. UPS failed to address communication barriers and to ensure equal conditions and opportunities for deaf employees;
  2. Deaf employees were routinely excluded from workplace information, denied opportunities for promotion, and exposed to unsafe conditions due to lack of accommodations by UPS;
  3. UPS also lacked a system to alert these employees as to emergencies, such as fires or chemical spills, to ensure that they would safely evacuate their facility; and
  4. UPS had no policy to ensure that deaf applicants and employees actually received effective communication in the workplace.

The outcome was that UPS agreed to pay a $5.8 million award and agreed to a comprehensive accommodations program that was implemented in their facilities throughout the country.

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  • 2001 – The Commonwealth of Virginia House of Delegates approved a resolution expressing regret for its eugenics practices between 1924 and 1979.[1]
  • 2001 – In PGA Tour, Inc. v. Martin (00-24) 532 U.S. 661, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act, by its plain terms, prohibited the PGA from denying Casey Martin equal access to its tours on the basis of his disability (a degenerative circulatory disorder preventing him from walking golf courses) and that allowing Martin to use a golf cart, despite the walking rule, was not a modification that would “fundamentally alter the nature” of the game.[94][95]
  • 2001- Penry v. Johnson, 532 U.S. 782 (2001), is a United States Supreme Court case which concerned whether instructions given to a Texas jury were constitutionally adequate to emphasize the mitigating factors in sentencing of mental retardation. The Texas courts had determined the sentencing instructions were consistent with prior Supreme Court jurisprudence, but the Court in a divided decision reversed, finding the sentencing instructions insufficient. This was the second time Penry’s case made it to the Supreme Court.
  • 2002 – In Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002), the U. S. Supreme Court ruled 6–3 that executing the mentally retarded violates the Eighth Amendment’s ban on cruel and unusual punishment.[96]
  • 2002 – The Help America Vote Act (HAVA) became law in the U.S., and it required voting “systems” to be accessible for all those with disabilities, including special assistance for blind or otherwise visually impaired voters.[16]
  • 2003 – The U.S. Supreme Court decision Sell v. United States imposed stringent limits on the right of a lower court to order the forcible administration of antipsychotic medication to a criminal defendant who had been determined to be incompetent to stand trial for the sole purpose of making them competent and able to be tried.[97]
  • 2003 – In Hornstine v. Township of Moorestown Blair Hornstine, then a high school senior, successfully sued her school district, which had said she was able to get a higher grade point average because she had been home-schooled at times because of an immune-system illness and, as a result, had taken more advanced placement courses and fewer low-rated physical education courses. Arguing that she had the highest grades and should not have to share the top honors in her class, Blair won the right to be sole valedictorian.[98][99]
  • 2003 – The Disability History Association was founded; it is an affiliated society of the American History Association.[100]
  • 2003 – On February 10, 2003, United States Department of Health and Human Services secretary Tommy G. Thompson announced a limited program in Alabama that would fund in-home services for Nick Dupree and 29 others who were turning 21 shortly;[101][102] previously Dupree had organized “Nick’s Crusade”, a campaign which attempted to gain continued in-home services for Alabamians with disabilities who are over the age of 21.
  • Leanns blog
  • 2004 – On October 30, 2004, President George W. Bush signed into law the “Special Olympics Sport and Empowerment Act,” Public Law 108-406. The bill authorized funding for its Healthy Athletes, Education, and Worldwide Expansion programs.[103]
  • 2004 – In Tennessee v. Lane, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Americans with Disabilities Act did not violate the sovereign immunity doctrine of the 11th Amendment when, based on Congress’s 14th Amendment enforcement powers of the Due Process clause, it allowed individuals to sue states for denying them services based on their disabilities. The Court held that Congress had sufficiently demonstrated the problems faced by disabled persons who sought to exercise fundamental rights protected by the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment (such as access to a court). The Court also emphasized that the remedies required from the states were not unreasonable – they just had to make reasonable accommodations to allow disabled persons to exercise their fundamental rights. The Court thus held that because Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act was a “reasonable prophylactic measure, reasonably targeted to a legitimate end,” and because Congress had the authority under the 14th Amendment to regulate the actions of the states to accomplish that end, the law was constitutional.[104]
  • 2004 – The first Chicago Disability Pride Parade was the first Disability Pride Parade in the United States after the Boston-based parades of the 1990s.[105] It was held on July 18, 2004.[106] The first Chicago parade was funded with $10,000 in seed money that Sarah Triano received in 2003 as part of the Paul G. Hearne Leadership award from the American Association of People with Disabilities.[107] According to Triano, fifteen hundred people attended the parade.[107] Yoshiko Dart was the parade marshal.[108]
  • 2005 – The California Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) became California law in 2005 after the voters passed Proposition 63. Funded through a 1 percent tax on personal incomes in excess of $1 million, the MHSA established a broad continuum of community-based prevention, early intervention, and other services for Californians with severe mental illnesses. The California Department of Mental Health administers the act, and counties and their contracted agencies provide the direct consumer services.[109]
  • 2005 – In Spector v. Norwegian Cruise Line Ltd., the U.S. Supreme Court held that Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act applied to foreign-flagged cruise ships in U.S. waters.[110]
  • 2005 – Peggy S. Salters, from South Carolina, became the first survivor of electroshock treatment in the United States to win a jury verdict and a large money judgment ($635,177) in compensation for extensive permanent amnesia and cognitive disability caused by the procedure.[111]
  • 2005 – In Campbell v. General Dynamics Gov’t Sys. Corp., the First Circuit Court of the U.S. had to consider the enforceability of a mandatory arbitration agreement, contained in a dispute resolution policy linked to an e-mailed company-wide announcement, insofar as it applied to employment discrimination claims brought under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Under the Court’s analysis, the question turned on whether the employer provided minimally sufficient notice of the contractual nature of the e-mailed policy and of the concomitant waiver of an employee’s right to access a judicial forum. The Court weighed the attendant circumstances and concluded that the notice was wanting and that, therefore, enforcement of the waiver would be inappropriate; thus the Court upheld the district court’s denial of the employer’s motion to stay proceedings and compel the employee to submit his claim to arbitration. The case is a principal case in the Rothstein, Liebman employment law casebook.[112]
  • 2005 – On November 14, 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court held in Schaffer v. Weast, 546 U.S. 49, that it is the party which requests a hearing under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act who has the burden of proof in such an action.
  • 2005 – In Bigby v. Dretke 402 F.3d 551 (5th Cir. 2005), the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit struck down jury instructions in death penalty cases that do not ask about mitigating factors including a consideration of the defendant‘s social, medical, and psychological history, saying that the jury must be instructed to consider mitigating factors even when answering unrelated questions. This ruling suggests that an expanded explanation including these factors be given in the jury instructions to insure the jury weighs all the mitigating factors. This ruling also established that a defendant’s mental disorder must be considered as a mitigating factor in sentencing in a death penalty case, even if mental illness was not brought up in the trial.[113]
  • 2006 – National Federation of the Blind v. Target Corporation, 452 F.Supp.2d 946 (2006), was a class action lawsuit in the United States that was filed on February 7, 2006 in the Superior Court of California for the County of Alameda, and subsequently moved to federal court.[114] The case challenged whether the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, specifically Title III’s provisions prohibiting discrimination by “places of public accommodation” (42 U.S.C. 12181 et seq) apply to websites and/ or the Internet, or are restricted to physical places. The plaintiff, National Federation of the Blind (NFB), sued Target Corporation, a national retail chain, claiming that blind people were unable to access much of the information on the defendant‘s website, nor purchase anything from its website independently.[115] On September 7, 2006, the court ordered that a retailer may be sued if its website is inaccessible to the blind. In the court’s opinion, Judge Marilyn Hall Patel explained that the order of the court was based upon “42 U.S. Code § 12182”,[116] the prohibition of discrimination by public accommodations clause of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which prohibits discrimination in the “enjoyment of goods, services, facilities or privileges.”[117]
  • 2006 – In United States v. Georgia, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that the protection of the Americans with Disabilities Act extends to persons held in a state prison and protects prison inmates from discrimination on the basis of disability by prison personnel. Specifically, the court held that title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1213112165., was a proper use of Congressional power under the Fourteenth Amendment, Section 5, making it applicable to prison system officials.[118]
  • 2007 – A psychiatric patient in the Creedmoor Psychiatric Center in New York, given the pseudonym of Simone D., won a court ruling which set aside a two-year-old court order to give her electroshock treatment against her will.[119]
  • 2007 – On May 21, 2007 the U.S. Supreme Court held in Winkelman v. Parma City School District, 550 U.S. 516, that parents have independent enforceable rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and may appear pro se on behalf of their children.
  • 2007 – Jonathan’s Law is the “popular name” of the amendments to New York Mental Hygiene Law Article 33. Jonathan’s Law, a New York statute, was signed into law in May 2007; it entitles parents and legal guardians access to all child abuse investigation files and medical history records.[120][121] The legislative measure is intended to hold residential mental health facilities accountable by requiring notification of guardians in cases of ill treatment, and requires written reports of ensuing investigations. Mike and Lisa Carey, the parents of Jonathan Carey, promoted Jonathan’s Law. Jonathan Carey, who had severe autism, was abused and neglected at school and later killed by a direct care worker.
  • 2007 – Michigan Paralyzed Veterans of America v. The University of Michigan, begun in 2007, was a case filed before The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan Southern Division on behalf of the Michigan Paralyzed Veterans of America against University of Michigan – Michigan Stadium claiming that Michigan Stadium violated the Americans with Disabilities Act in its $226-million renovation by failing to add enough seats for disabled fans or accommodate the needs for disabled restrooms, concessions and parking. Additionally, the distribution of the accessible seating was at issue, with nearly all the seats being provided in the end-zone areas. The suit was settled in March 2008.[122] The settlement required the stadium to add 329 wheelchair seats throughout the stadium by 2010, and an additional 135 accessible seats in clubhouses to go along with the existing 88 wheelchair seats. This case was significant because it set a precedent for the uniform distribution of accessible seating and gave the DOJ the opportunity to clarify previously unclear rules.[123] The agreement now is a blueprint for all stadiums and other public facilities regarding accessibility.[124]
  • 2008 – The Washington, D.C. District Court decided that the Treasury must “take such steps as may be required to provide meaningful access to United States currency for blind and other visually impaired persons,” siding with the American Council of the Blind.[125]
  • 2008 – The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (Pub.L. 110–233, 122 Stat. 881, enacted May 21, 2008, GINA) became law in the U.S. The Act prohibits group health plans and health insurers from denying coverage to a healthy individual or charging that person higher premiums based solely on a genetic predisposition to developing a disease in the future. The legislation also bars employers from using individuals’ genetic information when making hiring, firing, job placement, or promotion decisions.[126]
  • 2008 – The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Amendments Act of 2008 became law, and it broadened the scope of who is considered disabled under the law, and when considering whether a person is disabled, the law required that people ignore the beneficial effects of any mitigating measures (except ordinary eyeglasses and contact lenses) the person uses; furthermore, when considering whether a person is substantially limited in a major life activity, which would make them disabled under the law, the law required the consideration of bodily functions as well as other major life activities, and having one major life activity substantially limited is enough; when considering whether a person whose condition is episodic or in remission is substantially limited in a major life activity, the law required the consideration of the person’s limitations as they are when the condition is in an active state; furthermore, determining someone is disabled under the law does not require individuals to meet the substantially-limited-in-a-major-life-activity standard, but does not include impairments that are transitory and minor.[127]
  • 2008 – The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act became law in the U.S., and it required that if a group health plan includes medical/surgical benefits and MH/SUD (mental health/substance abuse) benefits, the financial requirements (e.g., deductibles and co-payments) and treatment limitations (e.g., number of visits or days of coverage) that apply to MH/SUD benefits must be no more restrictive than the predominant financial requirements or treatment limitations that apply to substantially all medical/surgical benefits; MH/SUD benefits may not be subject to any separate cost-sharing requirements or treatment limitations that only apply to such benefits; if a group health plan includes medical/surgical benefits and MH/SUD benefits, and the plan provides for out-of-network medical/surgical benefits, it must provide for out-of-network MH/SUD benefits; and standards for medical necessity determinations and reasons for any denial of benefits relating to MH/SUD benefits must be disclosed upon request. However, this law does not apply to small group health plans.[86][128]
  • 2009 – The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act became law in the U.S., and it expanded the definition of federal hate crime to include those violent crimes in which the victim is selected due to their actual or perceived disability; previously federal hate crimes were defined as only those violent crimes where the victim is selected due to their race, color, religion, or national origin.[129]
  • 2009 – The Christopher and Dana Reeve Paralysis Act became law in the U.S. It was the first piece of comprehensive legislation aimed at improving the lives of Americans living with paralysis; it created new coordinated research activities through the National Institutes of Health to search for a cure for paralysis, and promotes enhanced rehabilitation services for Americans living with paralysis.[130]
  • 2009 – In Forest Grove v. T.A., the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the parents of a child with a disability. The Supreme Court held that even though their son had never received special education services from the school district they were entitled to pursue tuition reimbursement for the private educational program they secured for their son, T.A.[131
  • 2010 – The 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act, known as CVAA, was signed into law. It requires that unedited, full-length programs shown on TV with captions must also be captioned when they are made available online, with more requirements to be phased in at later dates.[132]
  • 2010 – Rosa’s Law, which changed references in many federal statutes that referred to “mental retardation” to make them refer, instead, to “intellectual disability“, became law in the U.S.[133]
  • 2010 – The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act became law. Due to this law, since 2012 companies cannot drop a person’s coverage when they get sick due to a mistake the person made on their application, or put a lifetime cap on how much care they will pay for if a person gets sick, and since 2014 companies cannot deny coverage based on preexisting conditions, or put an annual cap on how much care they will pay for if a person gets sick.

Imnotyourcarpet.comWow so who is enforcing these laws? Are these laws only for the ones that can afford a lawyers to sue over and over to enforce them? The fact is there is very little awareness or education on issues. People are so scared that there going to get sued over any questions they ask they don’t. They need people to point things out to improve the way life is for the disabled, there scared to be sued ever time most don’t even know that there is something wrong. The disabled are pissed off cause people don’t seem to care by not asking. For example I went on a collage tour for my son as we were touring people walked over to ask me can I ask you for some information. I said sure they really wanted to know how to make things better. I told them some basics like stop putting sensor where a standing person would be, to do the best job understanding basics, get a wheelchair and have a relay race where you also have a campus scavenger hunt. That’s how you will learn the most information, gain a form of understanding even if it is a small amount of what really is needed. My self I think all schools that train the new generation need to have some idea of what its like before they make a design. If there job requires them to know the laws of how it has to be build why do they not have to understand what its like. I don’t know about you but its always the silly things that mess me up the most. Like a parking space at the end of a ramp made for the handicap.    Thank you and until next time, Leann’s blog

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